Saturday, August 22, 2020

Exploring puzzle plots, their representation of events and complex Dissertation

Investigating puzzle plots, their portrayal of occasions and complex characters and the jobs of every player the undetectable story t - Dissertation Example These components and elements could regularly be said to incorporate storyline, characters, plot, crowd, setting, and acting †and these could be said to make out of the delicate side of filmmaking. At the hard side, components and factors, for example, shooting, sound, lighting, altering, cinematography, impacts and exposure additionally proceed to complete the film. A mix of both the delicate and hard sides of the film causing procedure to add to the assurance of the achievement or in any case of a film. Undoubtedly, much consideration will go into the delicate side of film making, which contains components, for example, storyline, plot, setting, crowd, account, and characters. These viewpoints are chosen on account of the particular impact that they have in figuring out what an end client pays special mind to in a fortunate or unfortunate film (Krzysztof, 2001). Curiously, how well a film maker can assemble every one of these structures and themes of movies together goes far t o figure out what might later come to be known as the achievement or disappointment of the film. By and large, when film commentators are motion pictures, they do so dependent on the greater part of these elements thus they will remain the focal point of the thesis. Having said this, it is essential to call attention to that the end client of movies is of prime significance in this investigation. This is on the grounds that the vast majority of the endeavors of the producer are aimed at giving the end client, who is the watcher, some degree of fulfillment. Quite a while prior, most producers are said to have seen the end client as somebody who might need to see motion pictures as a latent demonstration thus didn't anticipate that the watcher should be such a great amount of engaged with unraveling the film. Vitally, producers gave watchers straight forward films that were so natural to comprehend and grasp from their starting to their end. From the 1990s, there appeared to be a chan ge in perspective where most producers began considering the to be of review films as a functioning practice thus the need to make the watcher assume a job in understanding what the entire film was about. This is the thing that in the assessment of many achieved the introduction of very irregular line of motion pictures including what has come to be known as puzzle films. For the most part, a riddle film is one that gives the watcher a line of obligation in figuring out the plot of the film, the arrangements in question, just as the general unforeseen development in the film (Bordwell, 2002). Research Problem Several film specialists, understudies and educators what has become another pattern in the introduction of the plots of motion pictures whereby the watcher is given such a large number of tasks to carry out through comprehending a riddle of what the plot is about and how the general improvement of the film unfurls. From this viewpoint, there are two significant ways of thinkin g that can be distinguished. Initially, there are the individuals who hold the supposition that the way that film is a craftsmanship should end with the film creator and not the end client. At last, these individuals accept that motion pictures ought to be introduced to the watcher as a completed item so perception of the film, its turn of events and its worth can approach effectively and with no psychological pressure (Borges,2002). These gathering of debaters thusly adjust themselves to the customary method of building film plots whereby the watcher pictures the film as a ceaseless straight procedure, only an it occurs in out ordinary kind of portrayal of stories. Be that as it may, as much as the

Thursday, July 16, 2020

How Is St. Johns Wort Used for Anxiety

How Is St. Johns Wort Used for Anxiety Social Anxiety Disorder Treatment and Therapy Print How Is St. Johns Wort Used for Anxiety? By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder and 7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety. Learn about our editorial policy Arlin Cuncic Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on September 15, 2015 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on January 18, 2020 Social Anxiety Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Anna Yu/Stockbyte/Getty Images In This Article Table of Contents Expand Overview Dosage Contraindications Medication Interactions Side Effects Risks Effectiveness   Social Anxiety Disorder Other Supplements View All St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is an herbal medicine that has historically been used for treating various mental disorders and physical ailments, most notably depression.??  ? How St. Johns Wort Is Taken St. John’s Wort is usually taken daily in pill form. Dosage Guidelines In studies?? of social anxiety disorder, the typical dosage ranges from 600 to 1800 milligrams of St. John’s Wort daily. However, because ingredients can vary, doses may also vary. Before taking St. John’s Wort, you should read the product label and discuss the dose with a qualified healthcare provider. Who Should Not Take St. John’s Wort There is not enough scientific evidence?? to recommend the use of St. John’s Wort for children under 18 years of age or for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. St. John’s Wort also has the potential to interact with many other medications, herbs, and supplements and may not be recommended in those cases. Medication Interactions St. John’s Wort interferes with the way the body processes or breaks down many medications, herbs, and supplements. It may speed up or slow down this process causing increased or decreased effects, adverse reactions or increased side effects. The medications that may potentially interact?? with St. John’s Wort include, but are not limited to the following: Birth control pillsTricyclic antidepressantsSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)HIV drugs, such as IndinavirCancer drugs, such as IrinotecanCyclosporine (used to prevent the body from rejecting transplanted organs)Digoxin (strengthens heart muscle contractions)Warfarin and related anticoagulants In general, check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional and/or pharmacist about possible interactions. Side Effects The most common side effects of St. John’s Wort are sensitivity to sunlight, restlessness or anxiety, dry mouth, dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue/sedation, headache, sexual dysfunction  and skin reactions. Generally, only a small percentage of people will experience side effects and the side effects tend to be less than those associated with a  standard antidepressant medication. Speak with a healthcare provider immediately if you experience any side effects. Associated Risks The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the production of herbs and supplements. Although there are known medication interactions for St. John’s Wort, most herbs, and supplements are not thoroughly tested. There is also no guarantee regarding the ingredients or safety of the product. Effectiveness   Current research?? suggests that St. John’s Wort is useful in treating  mild to moderate depression. However, the usefulness of St.  John’s Wort as a  primary treatment  for anxiety has not been established. A 2005 study?? on the effectiveness of St. John’s Wort in treating  social anxiety disorder (SAD)  found that patients who took the medicine didn’t improve any more than patients who took a  placebo. Using St. Johns Wort for Social Anxiety Disorder Given that no research evidence?? exists to support the use of St. Johns Wort in treating SAD, its usefulness for this purpose is questionable. However, if you suffer from depression in addition to social anxiety disorder, you may experience some benefit. As a bottom line, if you have been diagnosed with SAD, be sure to consult with your healthcare professional about effective primary  treatment  methods, such as  cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)  or  selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Other Supplements for Social Anxiety Disorder ChamomileKava KavaPassion FlowerRhodiola RoseaValerian RootWinter Cherry

Thursday, May 21, 2020

History and Laws behind the Federal Food and Drug Act of...

History and Laws behind the Federal Food and Drug Act of 1906 As one of the primary federal consumer-protection laws in existence today, The Federal Food and Drug Act of 1906 was a law that had two primary goals for food and drugs: (a) forbid harmful ingredients and additions and (b) demand labeling of ingredients to inform consumers. According to Janssen (1981), it was hoped that the enactment of this law would eliminate adulterations and poisons sometimes found in foods, sometimes in drugs and often in both. The foundation of food and drug protection came from the development of scientific methods of analysis by the Federal Bureau of Chemistry,†¦show more content†¦Through his own research with human volunteers to determine the effects of food preservatives on digestion and health, dubbed the â€Å"Poison Squad,† Wiley enlisted the support of the American Medical Association, the General Federation of Women’s Clubs and other consumer groups (Janssen). Meanwhile, his staunchest opposition came from the largest adverti sers in the country; distillers and patent medicine firms. â€Å"But the tide was turned, according to historians and Dr. Wiley himself, when the voteless, but militant club of women throughout the country who rallied to the pure food cause† Janssen, 1981,  ¶ 12). Undoubtedly, these women supported Dr. Wiley because he had become a popular speaker at their supper clubs where crusading writers of national magazines also joined his campaign by publishing his findings as editorials. Ultimately, legislation closely followed the January 1906 publishing of Upton Sinclair’s best-selling novel The Jungle, which portrayed dangerous working conditions as well as the unsanitary methods of Chicago’s meatpacking industry. On June 30, 1906, The Pure Food and Drug Act was passed providing inspection of meat products and proh ibiting the sale, manufacture, and transport of harmful patent medicines. Major ProvisionsShow MoreRelatedRegulatory Agency Paper1549 Words   |  7 Pages HCS/430 Federal Drug and Food Administration â€Å"The Federal Drug Administration is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA organization consist of the Office of Commissioner and four directorates overseeing four core functions of the agency: Medical Products, and Tobacco, Foods, Global Regulatory Operations, and Policy, and Operations† (FDA, 2011). The FDA is responsibleRead MoreThe Rise Of The Progressive Era1418 Words   |  6 Pagessociety by alerting the public of the problems and making them aware of what is really going on behind the scenes. In addition, this style of writing had become very common and popular. â€Å"In 1887, meatpacking was the second largest business in Cincinnati, behind only iron production. Meatpacking brought in more than 23.5 million dollars to the city s economy that year, just 3.5 million dollars behind the iron industry.† (â€Å"Meatpacking 5†) â€Å"Until the Civil War era, meatpacking was primarily locatedRead MoreFood Manufactures have Taken Over1776 Words   |  7 Pagesmachines and buildings built to accommodate and the exploit the opportunity and moment at hand. Due to this sudden improvement, food manufactures being the primary industry and instrumental in their clever ways; developed a way to profit by reducing workers, encouraged unsanitary habits and unscrupulous ways which resul ted as a disastrous blow to the public. This bad habit in the food industry (primarily the meat factories) in late 1800s to early 1900s aroused one of the most controversial novel (expose)Read MoreHistory of Drug Laws and Law Enforcement1637 Words   |  7 PagesDrug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement Since the late 19th century, the federal and states governments of the United States have enacted laws and policies to deter the use and distribution of illegal drugs. These laws and policies have not only deemed what drugs are legal and illegal, but have also established penalties for the possession and distribution of these substances and established federal agencies to control drug use and administer drug law enforcement. This essay will not only examineRead MoreSinclair s The Jungle And Schlosser s Fast Food Nation1459 Words   |  6 Pageseerily similar accounts in attempt to expose the dangers behind our food. These shocking revelations exposed by Sinclair and Schlosser have forever changed the way our nation views its food. Sinclair s The Jungle and Schlosser s Fast Food Nation discuss the topics of factory conditions and their safety, prevalence of immigrant workers, the conditions of animals and their health, and the corruption behind large corporations and the federal gove rnment. These overwhelming similarities have caused SchlosserRead MoreThe Food Industry From The 20th Century1674 Words   |  7 PagesThe Food Industry from the 20th to the 21st Century Throughout human history, there have always been people who step up to make a change in our world. When people encounter something they don’t like they want to change it. The author of The Jungle and the producers of Food, Inc. are no exception. During the early 20th century the meat packing industry was a filthy and cruel business. Cruel to both the people that worked in the factories and the animals that were killed there. The industry has changedRead MoreThe Jungle by Upton Sinclair730 Words   |  3 PagesThe nineteen twenties in American history was as important maybe if not the most important era of American past time. Reasons for this are because at the turn of the century and into the twenties there were many things being discovered, new inventions, and new laws to being constructed for a developing nation. Along with this many Americans were moving to more urban areas in search of not only jobs but a better way of life due to the industrial factories. The invention o f not only the automobileRead MoreDrug Abuse And The Unwinnable War1462 Words   |  6 PagesDrug Abuse and the Unwinnable War Drugs are not a new thing by any means and have been commonplace in most cultures at one point or another. Throughout the known history of the world humans have used drugs to provide mind and mood altering experiences. Evidence of the production of alcohol can be traced back to the description of a brewery in an Egyptian papyrus as early as 3500 B.C (Fort, J. 1969). On a seemingly primal level, humans have always had some incessant need to alter their state of consciousnessRead MoreTheodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States of America1343 Words   |  6 Pagesgraduated from Harvard University. Many good things started happening for him in the year of 1881, like being elected to the New York State Assembly and beginning his first term in January, 1882. In 1882, he was also able to publish his first book, â€Å"A History of the Naval War of 1812.† On February 12, 1884, his first child, Alice, was born. The exciting news of her birth was soon forgotten, when his wife Alices kidneys failed from pregnancy, which caused her to pass away about two days later. AnotherRead MoreHistory of Fda2718 Words   |  11 PagesHistory of the FDA From a staff of one to over 9,000, the Food and Drug Administration has seen great changes since it was first created in 1862. Stemming from a single chemist in the U.S. Department of agriculture, the FDA now encompasses most food products, both human and animal drugs, cosmetics and animal feed. The FDA received it start under a different name. First called the Division of Chemistry, which played a small part in everyday life, then in July of 1901, the name was again changed

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Person Centered Theory By Carl R. Rogers - 1584 Words

Person-Centered Theory Carl R. Rogers is known as the founding father of person-centered therapy. He was born in Oak Park, Illinois, in 1902 to a devoted Christian and a civil engineer (Rogers, Kirschenbaum, Land, 2001). In 1922 Rogers began to doubt his religious teaching from early on in life, he sought a more liberal education at the Union Theological Seminary (Rogers, Kirschenbaum, Land, 2001). After two years he left to attend Columbia University to study clinical and education psychology. Rogers went on to write four major books: The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child (1939), Counseling and Psychotherapy: New Concepts in Practice (1942), Client-Centered Therapy (1951), and Psychotherapy and Personality (Rogers Dymond, 1954) (Walsh, 2010; Patterson, 2007). Carl R. Rogers constructed the person-centered theory by his influences of Elizabeth Davis and Frederick Allen who studied under Jessie Taft as well as Otto Rank and John Dewey (Patterson, 2007; Walsh, 2010). Influenced by Jessie Taft, Roge rs adopted an optimistic view of people, individuals are capable of recreating themselves and are not the end products of their past (Patterson, 2007; Walsh, 2010). Otto Rank advocated that treatment of a client be centered around that client and that therapist be more emotionally involved within the process. Third Rogers was influenced by John Dewey who helped him understand and develop his position that self-actualized people live in harmony rather then conflictShow MoreRelatedComparing Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Person-Centered Psychology1735 Words   |  7 PagesPsychotherapy and Person-Centered Psychology The counseling profession has a broad spectrum of possibilities when it comes to choosing which psychological approach to take. The field of counseling takes many forms and offers many career options, from school counseling to marriage and family therapy. As there are numerous styles in existence, it is important to be aware of the many approaches available to take. For my research two psychological approaches, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Person-Centered PsychologyRead MorePerson Centered Psychotherapy And Carl Rogers Essay869 Words   |  4 PagesPerson-Centered Psychotherapy and Carl Rogers Carl Rogers (1902-1987) is the founder of person-centered psychotherapy approach. Person-centered psychotherapy, which is one of the most popular approaches in modern psychology, is a sub-group of humanistic-existential counseling. The other two approaches under this umbrella are existential counseling and gestalt counseling. (Gehart, 2015) Rogers was born into a highly conservative Protestant Christian family in Greater Chicago area. He became interestedRead MoreCarl R. Rogers : The Founding Father Of Person Centered Therapy1605 Words   |  7 PagesCarl R. Rogers is known as the founding father of person-centered therapy. He was born in Oak Park, Illinois, in 1902 to a devoted Christian and a civil engineer (Rogers, Kirschenbaum, Land, 2001). In 1922 Rogers began to doubt his religious teaching from early on in life, he sought a more liberal education at the Union Theological Seminary (Rogers, Kirschenbaum, Land, 2001). After two years he left to attend Columbia University to study clinical and education psychology. Rogers went on to writeRead MoreThe Theory Of The Fully Functioning Person1146 Words   |  5 Pages Carl Rogers (1961) as stated that â€Å"the concept of the fully functioning Person, It was an attempt to spell out the picture of the person who would emerge if therapy were maximally successful† (On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy p.183) This fully function person as Carl Rogers (1961) described is a person who is in touch with his deepest and innermost feelings and needs. The individual understands their own emotions and place a deep trust in their own instincts and urgesRead MoreHumanistic and Existential Personality Theories1136 Words   |  5 PagesPersonality Theories Many theorists have dedicated their lives trying to figure out how the personality of a person is shaped. While the theories presented have brought up interesting and valid points on what causes personality, there are others that have taken a different approach to its study. There is the Humanistic-Dynamic theory by Abraham Maslow, the Person-Centered theory by Carl Rogers, and the Existential Psychology made popular by Rollo May. Analyze how humanistic theories affect individualRead MoreMy Integrative Counseling Theory Proposal Essay1550 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"My Integrative Counseling Theory Proposal† Monica Blount Point University Abstract This paper will examine the theories of two prominent Psychologist; Carl Roger and Aaron Beck. Cognitive Behavior Therapy was developed by Aaron Beck who believed that individuals ‘were a by product of their environment. Person Center Therapy understand that people can use their strengths and resources to solve their own problems. This paper will describe how these two models can be used to integrate therapeuticRead MoreHumanistic Psychology Essay1631 Words   |  7 PagesThe focus of this paper is the person-centered approach, which is the understanding of personality and human relationships in psychotherapy and counseling in the areas of client-centered therapy, education of student-centered learning, organizations, and other group settings. Even though psychoanalysis and behaviorism have made major contributions to psychology, it has influenced the understanding and practices of the humanistic movement, specifically with the therapies for the different mental disordersRea d MoreContrasting Psycodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral and Person-Centered Counseling Theories1732 Words   |  7 PagesCounseling is a process that enables a person to sort out issues and reach decisions affecting their life. Often counseling is sought out at times of change or crisis, it need not be so, however, as counseling can also help us at any time of our life† (Woods, 2005). Counseling theories are used by counselors as part of their treatment plan for clients. There are many types of theories that counselors can choose from. These theories are usually hosen based on the client needs and what the counselorRead MoreA Summary of the Psychodynamic Theory and Sigmund Freuds Ideas1826 Words   |  7 PagesIt is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freuds notions retain quite a bit of popularity, esp ecially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps not often explanatoryRead More Carl Rogers Theory of Person Centered Therapy857 Words   |  4 PagesThe theories of Carl Rogers brought about much change to the world of psychology. He was the first to publish complete therapy sessions for later review and study. Changing the term â€Å"patient† to that of â€Å"client† since talk therapy is non-medical for his approach calling it Person Centered Therapy is often now the preferred term (Kirschenbaum Jourdan, 2005). The main objective of â€Å"Person-Centered Therapy† would be that of helping the client in assuming responsibility and putting it into the client’s

Curriculum Leader as Change Agent Free Essays

Curriculum Leader as Change Agent The profession of nursing is a vital part of the health care system. Any change in the system brings about change in the profession. Nursing, as a profession, continues to stand to the challenge of the times. We will write a custom essay sample on Curriculum Leader as Change Agent or any similar topic only for you Order Now The workplace environment for health care workers has undergone change, too. There is a wide range of continuous improvement of healthcare forces brought about by technological advances and modernization in society especially in the field of nursing curriculum. Responding to the challenge brought about by these changes in the healthcare environment and the healthcare workplace means major reforms in the delivery and management of the health care system. It means a health care workforce function as a change agent and create a preferred future for nursing Leader education and nursing practice who is ready and prepared to meet the advances of modern society and its accompanying challenges. It is for this reason that every nurse should pursue the pathway of curriculum educator. As educator leader, we are envisioned to be integrated and comprehensive approaches to health development. It endeavors to make essential goods, health and nursing education as part of the so called re-engineering Change in the healthcare system has a major impact on how, where, and even who practice nursing (Catalino, 1996). Nurses will need to get involved in decisions about where healthcare is going. They need to band together as a profession and exert potential power that they have access to politicians, physicians, hospital administrators, and insurance companies in shaping the future of their profession. Preparing nurse educator curricula must address the core of knowledge and skills essential for effectiveness and excellence in the nurse educator role and make transparent the scope and standards of nurse educator practice. Each nurse educator course specifically addresses one or more of the core competencies including curriculum design, assessment and evaluation, instructional technology, and designing systems to support change in nursing education. Nurse educator as leader and agent to change must encourage students, co workers and other professions to tell their stories, assess their strengths and weaknesses, and describe their growth and development in the educator role. This facet of nursing should engages future nurses in critical thinking, fosters creativity, and motivates them to use standards to inform their own practice. Most importantly, the Nurse Educator as leader and agent of change challenges students to reflect upon their academic preparation in each of the core competencies and prepares them to assume roles as leaders and innovators in the practice and science of nursing education. Nurse educator as innovator should also reflect on the essence of each of the competencies in their practice; select evidence that demonstrates their knowledge and abilities for each competency; and project excellence based on their learning and professional goals, on the core competencies of nurse educators. For example, facilitate learning , facilitate learner development and socialization, use assessment and evaluation strategies, participate in curriculum design and evaluation of program outcomes, function as change agent and leader, pursue continuous quality improvement in the nurse educator role, engage in scholarship, and function within the educational environment. Ultimately, sharing information about the core competencies of nurse educators challenge to develop the components of our role in all its dimensions and inspires excellence in their practice as nurse educators. How to cite Curriculum Leader as Change Agent, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Mixed Economics free essay sample

In this assignment I have been asked to examine the arguments for and against the UK been a mixed economy of both private and public organisations. An economy consists of the economic system of a country, which is the process it uses to determine what is produced and how it will be distributed. There are three different ways to determine on what is produced and how it will be distributed, by either a market economy, mixed economy or a command economy. A command economy is an economy that is largely controlled by the government and is made up of public organisations. The central government will make all the decisions regarding what good and services are produced and how they will be distributed. The government does this through a planning process so a command economy could also be known as a planned economy. Through a planning process the government will decide who to allocate resources to and will they direct producers what to produce meaning that consumers will have limited choice as there is little variety of goods and services. We will write a custom essay sample on Mixed Economics or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There are 3 main agents in a command economy the government, the consumers and the workers. In a command economy the government will ensure a more equal distribution of income and wealth, as everyone will be paid equal dependant of their job. The government will also provide merit goods like education, health care and pensions; this is through schools and hospitals. A merit good is a product that society values and judges that everyone should have regardless of whether an individual wants them. This type of economy will provide all citizens with a minimum standard of living. Command economies should be also be good for the environment because the government is about the greater good so should take into consideration the environment when deciding how many goods to produce but it doesn’t always work out that as they become more concerned about increasing productivity. A command economy can lead to productive inefficiency due to a lack of competition and no profit motive as everyone is working for the common good. Countries still using command economies are Cuba and North Korea. A market economy is opposite to a command economy meaning that it is a type of economic system in which the trading and exchange of goods and services takes place in a free market. A market economy is made up of private organisations who will determine the price of goods and services, what to produce and in what quantity meaning consumers will get freedom of choice in what they want to purchase. Free markers are also very competitive so competitors will allocate their resources more efficiently as the decision about what will be produce are determined by the people that actually consume the goods. Competitors will always be trying to produce new and better things to get ahead of their competition so will improve Innovation within a free market economy unlike in a command economy when there is no incentive for the planner to be innovative. There is little intervention from the state in a free market economy. In reality a pure market economy does not exist as they would not work as there has to be certain regulations in place. A free market economy achieves higher economic growth rates than a command economy, so the economy can grow bigger and at a faster rate. The most successful economy in the world the USA is an example of this as one of the freest economies in the world. â€Å"Economic growth is defined as the increasing capital to satisfy the wants of the members of society Economic growth is enabled by increases in productivity, which lowers the inputs (labour, capital, material, energy, etc. ) for a given amount of output. Lowered costs increase demand for goods and services. Economic growth is also the result population growth and of the introduction of new products and services. † (Source:http://en. wikipedia. rg/wiki/Economic_growth) Economic Growth is measured by GDP which refers to the total market value of all goods and services produced in a county in any given year. GDP figures are released on a quarterly year basis. Example of how GDP is worked out: GDP= C+I+G+(X-M) GDP= Consumer Spending + Investment in capital goods + Government Spending + (exports – imports) In a market economy there are some public goods that cannot be provided privately because of non-diminishability and non-excludability. An example of this is street lights where this has to be provided privately. There are also problems with merits goods like health care and education which are under provided. People are advised to take out health insurance but people tend not to as they can’t afford it or spend money on other things leaving people without health care for when they become ill. The biggest disadvantage of a free market economy is the uneven spreading of wealth. This means that there will be a proportion of people in poverty and a number of millionaires. This means that a child could be born into poor family and with a poor education they may not be able to live a high quality life. With a market there is the opportunity for successful people to make millions but a command economy is a fairer economy and will make sure everyone is given equal opportunities. A market will economy will also create more pollution than a command economy, which makes it bad for the environment as there is no limit on the amount of production and as businesses chose how to product goods. Governments can try to force firms into ways of producing goods by increasing taxes on things like petrol but a government with a limited role would not want to do this. A Mixed economy is an economic system in which the government and the private sector direct the economy. Most countries in the world will have a mixed economy. In a mixed economy the government will run such things as the postal service, rail lines, libraries, schools and hospitals. The governments pay for these through income taxes. With the existence of a government, they will make sure that there is a basic standard of living for citizens unlike in a free market economy when there is no safety net for people. Examples of this are that the government will provide free health service for all citizens, minimum wage laws and pension schemes. As a pure planned economy or market economy do not fully exist in the world, a mixed economy is an equal balance between these economies and would not be classed as mixed economy if a country was at one end of a scale. In a mixed economy free enterprise and private ownership still exists like in a free market economy but will be subject to government regulations, giving the consumers and producers the motivation as it will be for self-interest. The government are motivated by the good of the community. The ownership of property (land and capital) will be both owned by the private individual and private organisations as well as the government owning a proportion. In a mixed economy production is still run by private organisations. State and find figures to support the argument that England is a mixed economy, for example. Government spending in the UK accounted to 50% of spending.